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Billard S Le spécialiste du billard, de la table billard convertible et du baby foot ! VideoSWFC birthday picture Super Gehobene Freizeitkleidung Damen 2D Flash. The other principal games are played on tables that Direktvergleich six pockets, one at each corner and one in each of the long sides; these games include English billiards, played with three balls; snooker, played with 21 balls and a cue ball ; and pocket billiardsor pool, played with 15 balls and a cue ball. Spiel Orleans rails of hardened rubber or synthetic Billard S, known as cushions, rim the inner edge of the table. The game is played with three balls, two white and one red, with one of the white balls having a small red dot, or spot, to distinguish it.
Full-size pool tables are 4. High-quality tables have a bed made of thick slate, in three pieces to prevent warping and changes due to temperature and humidity.
Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. Pocket billiards tables of all types normally have six pockets, three on each side four corner pockets, and two side or middle pockets.
Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. Bar or tavern tables, which get a lot of play, use "slower", more durable cloth.
The cloth used in upscale pool and snooker halls and home billiard rooms is "faster" i. Snooker cloth traditionally has a nap consistent fiber directionality and balls behave differently when rolling against versus along with the nap.
The cloth of the billiard table has traditionally been green, reflecting its origin originally the grass of ancestral lawn games , and has been so colored since at least the 16th century, but it is also produced in other colors such as red and blue.
A rack is the name given to a frame usually wood, plastic or aluminium used to organize billiard balls at the beginning of a game.
This is traditionally triangular in shape, but varies with the type of billiards played. There are two main types of racks; the more common triangular shape which is used for eight-ball and straight pool and the diamond-shaped rack used for nine-ball.
There are several other types of less common rack types that are also used, based on a "template" to hold the billiard balls tightly together.
Most commonly it is a thin plastic sheet with diamond-shaped cut-outs that hold the balls that is placed on the table with the balls set on top of the rack.
The rack is used to set up the "break" and removed before the "break shot" occurs. Billiards games are mostly played with a stick known as a cue.
A cue is usually either a one piece tapered stick or a two piece stick divided in the middle by a joint of metal or phenolic resin.
High quality cues are generally two pieces and are made of a hardwood, generally maple for billiards and ash for snooker. The butt end of the cue is of larger circumference and is intended to be gripped by a player's hand.
The shaft of the cue is of smaller circumference, usually tapering to an 0. The tip, in conjunction with chalk, can be used to impart spin to the cue ball when it is not hit in its center.
Cheap cues are generally made of pine, low-grade maple and formerly often of ramin , which is now endangered , or other low-quality wood, with inferior plastic ferrules.
A quality cue can be expensive and may be made of exotic woods and other expensive materials which are artfully inlaid in decorative patterns.
Many modern cues are also made, like golf clubs , with high-tech materials such as woven graphite. Skilled players may use more than one cue during a game, including a separate cue often with a hard phenolic resin tip for the opening break shot and another, shorter cue with a special tip for jump shots.
The mechanical bridge, sometimes called a "rake", "crutch", "bridge stick" or simply "bridge", and in the UK a "rest", is used to extend a player's reach on a shot where the cue ball is too far away for normal hand bridging.
It consists of a stick with a grooved metal or plastic head which the cue slides on. Many amateurs refuse to use the mechanical bridge based on the perception that to do so is unmanly or cheating.
Some players, especially current or former snooker players, use a screw-on cue butt extension instead of or in addition to the mechanical bridge. Bridge head design is varied, and not all designs especially those with cue shaft-enclosing rings, or wheels on the bottom of the head , are broadly tournament-approved.
Chalk is applied to the tip of the cue stick , ideally before every shot, to increase the tip's friction coefficient so that when it impacts the cue ball on a non-center hit, no miscue unintentional slippage between the cue tip and the struck ball occurs.
Chalk is an important element to make good shots in pool or snooker. Cue tip chalk is not actually the substance typically referred to as " chalk " generally calcium carbonate , but any of several proprietary compounds, with a silicate base.
It was around the time of the Industrial Revolution that newer compounds formed that provided better grip for the ball.
This is when the English began to experiment with side spin or applying curl to the ball. This was shortly introduced to the American players and is how the term "putting English on the ball" came to be.
Some brands of hand chalk actually are made of compressed talc. Tip chalk is not used for this purpose because it is abrasive, hand-staining and difficult to apply.
Many players prefer a slick pool glove over hand chalk or talc because of the messiness of these powders; buildup of particles on the cloth will affect ball behavior and necessitate more-frequent cloth cleaning.
Cue tip chalk invented in its modern form by straight rail billiard pro William A. Spinks and chemist William Hoskins in   is made by crushing silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite  aluminium oxide ,   into a powder.
High humidity can also impair the effectiveness of chalk. Harder, drier compounds are generally considered superior by most players.
The main carom billiards games are straight rail , balkline and three cushion billiards. All are played on a pocketless table with three balls; two cue balls and one object ball.
In all, players shoot a cue ball so that it makes contact with the opponent's cue ball as well as the object ball. Others of multinational interest are four-ball and five-pins.
The most globally popular of the large variety of pocket games are Pool and snooker. A third, English billiards , has some features of carom billiards.
English billiards used to be one of the two most-competitive cue sports along with the carom game balkline, at the turn of the 20th century and is still enjoyed today in Commonwealth countries.
Another pocket game, Russian pyramid and its variants like kaisa are popular in the former Eastern bloc. In straight rail, a player scores a point and may continue shooting each time his cue ball makes contact with both other balls.
Some of the best players of straight billiards developed the skill to gather the balls in a corner or along the same rail for the purpose of playing a series of nurse shots to score a seemingly limitless number of points.
The first straight rail professional tournament was held in where Jacob Schaefer Sr. With the balls repetitively hit and barely moving in endless "nursing", there was little for the fans to watch.
In light of these skill developments in straight rail, the game of balkline soon developed to make it impossible for a player to keep the balls gathered in one part of the table for long, greatly limiting the effectiveness of nurse shots.
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Baby foot Sulpie main courante noire et This problem is insoluble using a compass and ruler construction Elkin , Riede , Neumann On an elliptical billiard table, the envelope of a trajectory is a smaller ellipse , a hyperbola , a line through the foci of the ellipse , or a closed polygon Steinhaus , pp.
The closed polygon case is related to Poncelet's porism. One can also consider billiard paths on polygonal billiard tables.
The only closed billiard path of a single circuit in an acute triangle is the pedal triangle. There are an infinite number of multiple-circuit paths, but all segments are parallel to the sides of the pedal triangle.
There exists a closed billiard path inside a cyclic quadrilateral if its circumcenter lies inside the quadrilateral Wells There are four identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a cube such that each leg on the path has the same length Hayward ; Steinhaus , ; Gardner , pp.
This path is in the form of a chair-shaped hexagon, and each leg has length. Lewis Carroll Charles Dodgson also considered this problem Weaver There are three identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a tetrahedron such that each leg of the path has the same length Gardner , pp.
These were discovered by J. Conway and independently by Hayward For a tetrahedron with unit side lengths, each leg has length.
Conway has shown that period orbits exist in all tetrahedra , but it is not known if there are periodic orbits in every polyhedron Croft et al. Altshiller Court, N.
New York: Dial Press, pp. Bakst, A. Mathematical Puzzles and Pastimes. New York: Van Nostrand, pp.
Bellman, R. New York: Academic Press, Boldrighini, C. Coxeter, H. Geometry Revisited. Welcome to the wonderful world of Billiards!
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